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aammar 21-01-2013 05:01 AM

Dutch occupation of Indonesia
 
The Portuguese monopolized the transportation of the spice trade to Europe until the year 988 AH/1580 AD. When Spain occupied Portugal, it consequently possessed all its property. Because of the defeat of the Spanish Armada in a naval battle with England in 997 AH/1588 AD, Spain could not supersede the Portugal in Indonesia by proceeding to occupy it.

After gaining their independence, the Netherlands was no longer afraid of the Spanish fleet, and moved freely in the sea without fear of a strong adversarial opponent. The first Dutch fleet sailed to India in 1590 AD, and reached the islands of Indonesia and then returned to the Netherlands. This was the reason for the establishment of the Dutch East India Company in 1602 AD. It was initially announced that the purpose of establishing the company was nothing but trade. However, soon the company held the monopoly of yields and agricultural products. The company owned lands in exchange for an income that the company paid to the Sultans.

The Dutch held sway over Indonesia and spread their dominance and permeation throughout the country. When they gained power and became influential, they began imposing their dominance by force. Indonesian Muslims resisted the Dutch occupation and the Dutch government intervened to suppress this overwhelming revolution.

The Portuguese and the Dutch colonizers were not the only ones who tried to lay claim to sovereignty over Indonesia; Britain also joined the group. It established a fort in Bencoolen on Sumatra's west coast in 1714 AD. The British presence in Indonesia lasted until 1825 AD.

Indonesia fell under the sway of the British East India Company in the period 1811 - 1816 AD, during the Napoleonic Wars, in which he was able to subdue the Netherlands. However, Britain and the Netherlands signed the Anglo-Dutch Treaty in London on August 13, 1814 AD. It stipulated that the British should cede the Dutch colonial territories in the Indonesian islands as they were in 1803 back to the Netherlands. Thus, the Netherlands regained its dominance over the Indonesian islands.


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