المساعد الشخصي الرقمي

مشاهدة النسخة كاملة : The First Tatar Attack C

13-02-2013, 07:58 AM
Trial of money and destruction of Muslims

The Muslims fell in the trial. They disputed over the distribution of the booty. Sayf Ad-Deen Bughraaq, the Turkish king, and Maalik Khaan, the governor of Herat, demanded their shares of the war spoils. There were differences and word clashes which led to sword clashes. There were Muslim victims who fell at the hands of Muslims. One of those was a brother of Sayf Ad-Deen Bughraaq, who grew angry and decided to withdraw from the army of Muslims, along with his 30,000 fighters. In this way, the Muslim army was put to great trouble. As Sayf Ad-Deen insisted on withdrawal, Jalaal Ad-Deen stimulated his sympathy in every way possible, and went to meet him by himself, reminded him of (the duty of) Jihaad, and frightened him of Allaah The Almighty. But Sayf Ad-Deen Bughraaq did not remember, and actually withdrew with his army.

In this way, the army of the Muslims was completely broken; they were spiritually and materially beaten. The Muslims failed to invest the valuable victory they achieved in both Ghaznah and Kabul.

Such being the case, Genghis Khan came by himself leading his armies to see that Muslim person who succeeded to emerge victorious twice over his soldiers. Terror and horror crept into the army of the Muslims, since they had become less in number, and their spirits were low. Jalaal Ad-Deen saw to what extent his army was weakened. Then, what did he do? He took his army and moved southward in flight from, or at least in avoidance of, fighting with the army of Genghis Khan under such circumstances.
But Genghis Khan was insistent on meeting him. So, he ran after Jalaal Ad-Deen, who started to do the same as his father had previously done, i.e. to move from one city to another southward until he arrived at the borders of Pakistan, which he broke in and went deeper until he exceeded the entire territories of Pakistan and reached the Indus River, which was separating, at that time, India and Pakistan.
Jalaal Ad-Deen intended to cross with his army the Indus River into India, and although his relations with the Muslim governors of India were not good, this was, for him, better than to face the armies of Genghis Khan.
But at the Indus River, Jalaal Ad-Deen was surprised when he found no ships to carry him and his army across that vast river to the other side. They called for ships which were to be brought from a very far place. While they were waiting for the ships to arrive, the army of Genghis Khan appeared to them.

There was no way but to fight, as being caught between the Indus River behind them and the army of Genghis Khan in front of them. Then, a great battle broke out between both parties, which was terrible in the full sense of the word, so much that those who watched it said that all the previous battles were something insignificant compared to it. This bloody fight lasted for three consecutive days. Both parties suffered the severity of killing. Maalik Khaan, the governor of Herat, was one of those killed among the rows of Muslims. He had previously fought with Sayf Ad-Deen Bughraaq over the war spoils. But he gained nothing from this world. Nay! He was killed by this world and could not exceed the very moment of his death. However, there is a great difference between the one who dies while supporting the Muslims at a full stretch, and the one who dies after his fighting has caused an affliction which led to a bitter defeat.

On the fourth day, both armies separated, due to the great number of victims, and each party started to re-assess its situation, rearrange its papers, bandage its wounds, and get ready once again. During that temporary armistice, the ships came to the Indus River. Jalaal Ad-Deen wasted no time in thinking; on the contrary, he took a quick and decisive resolution to flee. The Muslim leader jumped into the ship along with his private men and those who were close to him, and crossed the Indus River into India, and left the Tatars on the West side of the river.
Genghis Khan vented his anger upon these territories of the Muslims, and committed the same atrocities the Tatars used to commit wherever they were, and even more.

The city which suffered most was Ghaznah, near which the Muslims emerged victorious a few months earlier, when their forces were united. Genghis Khan entered the huge city of Ghaznah, the capital of the state of Jalaal Ad-Deen, and killed all its men with no exception, captured all its women without exception, and destroyed by fire all houses without exception. In this way, he left it, as stated by Ibn Al-Atheer, May Allaah Have mercy upon him, "and it had fallen into ruin, as if it had not flourished yesterday."
It is worth mentioning that among the city dwellers arrested and killed by Genghis Khan were the children of Jalaal Ad-Deen. Genghis Khan ordered that they all be slain. Thus, Jalaal Ad-Deen tasted the same cup of bitterness that millions of his people had tasted.
It was narrated on the authority of Abu Qilaabah, May Allaah Have mercy upon him, that he said that the Messenger of Allaah, sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa salam, said: "Do what you like, for you would be recompensed accordingly." [Al-Bayhaqi, and its chain of narrators is authentic, and its narrators are reliable, even though it is a Mursal Hadeeth (incompletely transmitted)] [Al-Albaani: Dha‘eef]
In this way, Genghis Khan realized one of his valuable dreams which he never expected to be as easy as it was; i.e. the occupation of Afghanistan.
Thus, the Tatars extended their occupation from China, to Kazakhstan, then Uzbekistan, then Turkmenistan, then Afghanistan, then Iran, then Azerbaijan, then Armenia, and then Georgia, and came very near to Iraq, within only one year, i.e. in 617 A.H./ 1220 A.D.
In 618 A.H. / 1221 A.D., the Tatars entered Maraghah and started to think about invading Irbil, north of Iraq. The Abbasid Caliph, An-Naasir Li Deen Allaah, felt afraid lest the Tatars would change their mind from Irbil, due to its hard mountainous nature and rather move towards Baghdad instead. He started to wake up from the deep slumber that had overwhelmed him during the previous years, and call the people to mobilize to face the Tatars in Irbil once they arrived. The state of public mobilization was announced in all Iraqi cities, and the Abbasid army started to get ready.
The Abbasid Caliph, An-Naasir Li Deen Allaah, was able to mobilize no more than 800 men. An-Naasir Li Deen Allaah was a puppet or a ghost caliph rather than a real caliph. Of course, the army leader, Muthaffar Ad-Deen was unable to repel the Tatars with that insignificant number of people. He withdrew with his army and, Exalted be Allaah, the Tatars thought it to be guile, and this division but the advance-guard of the army, as it was not reasonable that the army of the awesome Abbasid Caliphate would be no more than 800 soldiers. Consequently, the Tatars withdrew to avoid the battle.
The Tatars overestimated the latent possibilities of Iraq. This is why they preferred not to enter into a direct clash with the Abbasid Caliphate; and instead resorted to what is known as the war of attrition, by giving swift painful strikes to Iraq, the continuous long blockade, and concluding alliances and agreements with the neighboring countries and emirates to facilitate war against Iraq at the suitable time. Thus, the Tatars withdrew willfully for the Abbasid Caliphate to live a few years longer.
On their way of withdrawal, the Tatars invaded both Hamadan and then Ardabil, and came too near to Tabriz. In the past, they had previously accepted money, riding mounts and clothes from its governor, Uzbek ibn Al-Bahlawaan, the drunkard, and did not enter it just because when they came, it was severe winter. But now, since the atmosphere had improved and the sky had become clear, there would be no impediment to break the treaty and repeal the covenant.

But on their way to Tabriz, they received the news about the departure of its governor, Uzbek ibn Al-Bahlawaan, the drunk, and the accession of a new man, i.e. Shams Ad-Deen At-Tughraa’i, a Mujaahid who comprehended well his religion and knew his world. He motivated the people to take part in Jihaad and get ready for war, and encouraged them to remain steadfast, and warned them of the evil end of indifference and negligence. He taught them what they knew in theory and had never put into practice in their life. He taught them that by no means does man die before his due time; and that both his sustenance and appointed term have been decided before his coming to existence; and that whatever concessions the Muslims give to the Tatars, they will not leave them unless the Muslims protect themselves with their swords and armors, and without force, no right will be safeguarded on the surface of the earth.
The inhabitants of Tabriz were moved by enthusiasm and stood, along with their pious leader, to fortify their town. The people prepared themselves for Jihaad, for the first time in a very long period.
The Tatars heard about the new conditions of the city, and the state of civil agitation and general mobilization. They heard about the call for Jihaad, and how the people had prepared to fight. The Tatars heard about all of this: what did they do?
The Tatars took an amazing decision. They decided to avoid Tabriz, and not to fight with a people who had raised the banner of Jihaad in the Cause of Allaah. Allaah The Almighty Cast terror into the hearts of the Tatars, given their great multitudes, from the inhabitants of Tabriz, regardless of their scant numbers.
The Messenger of Allaah, sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa salam, was granted victory by terror cast into the hearts of his enemy from a distance as long as to be covered in a month; and also everyone following his way will be granted victory by terror cast into the hearts of his enemy.
That was a shining image which rose amidst this dark heap of dust. May Allaah Have mercy upon Shams Ad-Deen At-Tughraa’i, who revived the religion in this Muslim city, Tabriz.

The Tatars entered the city of Bilqan in Ramadhaan 618 A.H. / 1221 A.D., and struck with the sword all its inhabitants, leaving none of them living. The Tatars then moved towards the Muslim city of Kingah, whose inhabitants took refuge in the weapon of Jihaad, and prepared for it, the same as those of Tabriz, thereupon Allaah The Almighty Cast terror into the hearts of the Tatars from those of Kingah, and they left it for the invasion of Dagestan (Daghistan) and Chechnya, and, as usual, ruined everything in those territories and killed most of the people they found on their way. The Muslim city of Shamakhi (Samaxi) in Dagestan suffered most from the Tatarian onslaught.
Years then passed, during which the Tatarian crimes increased. By the year 622 A.H. / 1225 A.D., the Tatarian pressure had diminished, which gave room for the reemergence of Jalaal Ad-Deen ibn Khawaarizm Shaah, who allied himself with Sa‘d Ad-Deen ibn Takla against his brother Ghayyaath Ad-Deen ibn Khawaarizm Shaah!
Jalaal Ad-Deen then started to invade the region of Persia from south to north, fighting his brother Ghayyaath Ad-Deen, until he arrived in the west of Iran and came near the Abbasid Caliphate. The old relation between the kingdom of Khwarezm and the Abbasid Caliphate was extremely tense.

Jalaal Ad-Deen, feeling himself powerful versus the weak Abbasid Caliphate, waged war against the Abbasid Caliphate. Meanwhile, the Tatarian armies were still lying in the east of Iran. However, there should be no wonder, since most leaders, at that time, were politically short-sighted. Jalaal Ad-Deen entered Basrah with his army and besieged it for two months. Then, he left it and moved northward to come near Baghdad, the capital of the Abbasid Caliphate. Fearing for himself, An-Naasir Li Deen Allaah, the Abbasid Caliph, fortified the city and prepared the armies to repel Jalaal Ad-Deen. Furthermore, he did something odious and disgusting when he communicated with the Tatars, seeking their aid in war against Jalaal Ad-Deen.

Exalted be Allaah! The Tatars were preoccupied with spreading their control over the vast areas they had previously occupied, and it was not before the end of 622 A.H. / 1225 A.D., that war broke out between them and Jalaal Ad-Deen. Jalaal Ad-Deen invested that respite to spread his control over the areas surrounding Baghdad, the north of Iraq, and the north of Persia, and then started to enter the region of Azerbaijan and its surrounding Islamic regions.
Then, Jalaal Ad-Deen spread his control over the Christian kingdom of Kurg, after defeating them bitterly. He made a temporary peace treaty with his brother Ghiyaath Ad-Deen, and joined him to his army, even though each remained cautious of the other.

In this way, the authority of Jalaal Ad-Deen extended from the south of Persia to the north-west of the Caspian Sea. As vast as this territory might be, it was filled with commotion and trouble, not to mention the hostilities Jalaal Ad-Deen left in the hearts of all the governors of the surrounding regions, including An-Naasir Li Deen Allaah, the Abbasid Caliph. It was the policy based on hostilities, troubles and conspiracies which Jalaal Ad-Deen inherited from his father Muhammad ibn Khawaarizm Shaah, to which we have previously referred, and it returned with nothing but woes upon the Ummah. Would that the Muslims understand!

The year 624 A.H. / 1226 A.D. witnessed an important and significant event, i.e. the death of the tyrant, Genghis Khan at the age of 72 years, after he had built, during his rule, a vast kingdom extending from Korea in the east to Persia in the west. This kingdom was built on the people's blood, and, unfortunately, most of those people were from among the Muslims.
By the death of Genghis Khan, things became relatively calm in this region; the Tatars preserved what they occupied of the Muslim territories to the middle of Iran, while Jalaal Ad-Deen assumed his control over the territories of the west of Iran, and the west of the Caspian Sea. Each party seemed to have been satisfied with what was in hand, and preferred to keep what it thought to be its own right.